Friday, January 23, 2009

Arch 590: Scratch

Friday, December 5, 2008

Studio 601

Concept design
Barn wood Inventory

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Small house

Architects: Shuhei Endo
Location: Shioya Tarumi-ku Kobe, Hyogo-Pref., Japan
Consultants: Masashi Ooji, Design-Structure Laboratory
Project year: 2005Principal
use: House
Site Area: 130 sqm
Constructed Area: 65.7 sqm
Photographs: Shuhei Endo

Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Conflict Resolution

Today Marcia Stone is goinf to present on this topic.
Marcia has years of experience working in advertising, on the "creative" side, and was the North American Creative Director for one of the world's leading advertising agencies. As she made her way up the ladder (winning national and international awards along the way, while working for some of the world's best known corporations), Marcia supervised the work of many hundreds of art directors and writers. In this role as director and supervisor and mentor to young creative types, and in recent years as an Instructor at the Herron School of Art and Design at IUPUI, she's come to realize the importance of what is known as "emotional intelligence."
From her hand outs;
the 12 keys to conflict resolution:

1. Become aware of your emotions. If a conflict happens, check in with your body. Keep breathing. What
emotion do you feel inside? Core emotions: mad, sad, glad, afraid, confused. Anything else is a judgment, not
an emotion.++
2. Count to 10. Are you able to clearly say what you need without the cloud of anger? Hold off reacting in the
moment, if needed. Instead, choose how you want to respond, and when.* Remember that you cannot
control what others will do. You can only control your response to it.*
3. Keep the end in sight. Do you want to have a good working relationship with this person? Do you need
to have one? If the answer is no, you may still need to get rid of the emotional baggage you may be carrying
in a healthy way. Consider a ‘stand-in clearing’, writing a note and destroying it, or just breathing out and
naming the baggage.#
4. Talk to the person it’s hardest to talk to. Try to clear the situation up with them first. Going to the boss
is the last resort. Ask for support from your boss in a three-way conversation. Don’t triangulate.++
5. First seek to understand. Then seek to be understood. If the other person is upset, first validate their
feelings by saying, “It sounds like you are angry.” or “I can understand how you might feel that way.” Then ask
questions to help you both understand the situation better. Consider various perspectives. #
6. Find common ground. Are there some points of agreement upon which you both can start to form an
answer to the situation? Negotiation and compromise are often part of conflict resolution.+
7. Clear things up as soon as you can. Can you look the other person in the eye or is there something
standing between you? Ask for what you need in a way that others can hear without feeling threatened.
First ask permission to clear things up. Then use the PIN clearing model: physical data, intellectual story, and
need. Do ask for what you need to feel clear with this person. Give each person a chance to clear, one at a
time, while the other person repeats back what they heard.++
8. Keep it work related. How does the situation affect the work, the team, or your working relationship?
Don’t get into personal attacks or discuss situations beyond those related to work.
9. Be clear and specific if you need to communication information. Ask for confirmation that others heard
your meaning. Repeat back what you heard when receiving information by saying, “So what I heard you say
is...” If the meaning isn’t correct, correct your meaning courteously.+
10. Offer choices when possible. This gives others more of a sense of control over their own situation.
Invite them to consider the options. Then respect their choice.++
11. Create healthy boundaries. Before working together, decide upon clear roles and responsibilities, how
decisions will be made and how the team will work together. Assign a leader. Be honest and assess the team
as you go. Make changes as needed for the good of the team.
12. Earn trust. Be an accountable member of the team. Concentrate on your own contribution. Do what you
say you are going to do. If you need help, ask for it. And respect the expertise of your team members. If you
don’t, expect others to clear with you. The energy you put into the team will come back to you.
marcia stone 􀀁 􀀁 educating emotionally intelligent designers
􀀁 the 12 keys to conflict resolution
* In his book, Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman says that IQ is less important than EI (Emotional Intelligence).
Those who are Emotionally Intelligent can recognize and control their own emotions and, as a result, live happier, more
successful personal and work lives.C
reating an emotionally intelligent work environment Conflicts between people, not the work, are usually the biggest problems for designers. Teams fail, business is lost, and employees leave organizations or are asked to leave as a result of these conflicts.Before you start to work together,agree upon how you’ll work together;Roles and responsibilities,Expertise areas,Levels of delegation,,Decision making processes,Meetings, Physical closeness; beware a team of isolated individuals,Schedule,Conflict resolution
Accountability,communicate,Clear,,Honest,,Timely,,Respectful,,Listen to each other,stay together thru the stages of the creative process,Creative people tend to be goal or deadline oriented; may jump to execution, Creative people tend to want to spend most time in process in their comfort zone,Diverging (considering many options),Deferring Judgment during Divergence.
Converging: (making decisions)
use feedback strategically
􀀂 360º review process at regular intervals 􀀂 􀀂
􀀁 Have good successes: celebrate what we did right
􀀁 Have good failures: learn how to improve outcomes
pin conflict resolution model

Ask the person(s) with whom you have a conflict if they are available for to clear something up
with you. For instance, “I have something to clear up with you and I wonder if you are in a
place to hear me.” If the other person is available, continue. If not, ask if the person would be
available to schedule your discussion for another time.
repeat back
During the conflict resolution, pause and allow the other person to repeat back to you what
you are saying at each stage to make sure you are being heard. Be prepared to listen and be
heard, using active listening skills, making sure that you understand the other person’s
perspective accurately and fully.
p (physical data)
State the specific behavior or events you saw or heard. Be objective and non-judgmental.
Do not include judgment or conclusions. Only what you actually saw or heard. State the
consequence(s) of the person’s behavior in terms of results or relationships or both.
i (intellectual story)
State the story you make up about this behavior or event. For example, “I think you don’t
accept me as part of the team.” “I feel you want all the credit…” or “I think you don’t want any
of our ideas to be successful…” These are your own judgments on the situation, based on
your personal frame of reference. You are sharing this information so the other person has a
clearer understanding of how you view the world and your work together.
Then state the consequence of this behavior. For instance, “When you show up late
(behavior), the group gets started late (consequence).”
n (need)
State what you would like the person to do in specific, measurable behavior. Don’t make the
person guess. Allow your statement to reflect an underlying attitude of acceptance, respect,
and a desire to reach an understanding in order to be non-threatening to the other person.
0. Are you available for me to clear something up with you?
1. I saw/heard you (physical data)
2. and how I try to make sense of that is that I think (intellectual story)
and how this affects our working relationship for me is (consequence(s))
5. and what I need/would like is (need).
Is that something you can do?
turn it around
In turn, once you have cleared up what you needed, the other person(s) may then ask you if
you are available to have something cleared up with them, if needed.

a conflict I want to clear up at work
p (physical data)
i (intellectual story)
n (need)
Steven R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, Free Press, 1990.
John Field, The Strategic Listening Model: skills and strategies toward a new methodology for
listening, Bates USA workshop, New York, 1999.
Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence:why it can matter more than IQ, Bantam, 1997.
Marcia Stone, The Creative Director Survival Guide,
cdsurvivalguide, 2005.
Charlene Tosi, Tosi and Associates, The Woman Within Training Weekend, Woman Within
International,, 1992.
marcia stone 􀀁 􀀁 educating emotionally intelligent designers

Friday, November 14, 2008

Jersey Devil

Yesterday there was a lecture by Steve ( Steven Paul) Badnes.

He talked about,

Design as a fantasy

How to create timeless quality?
And design build project.
Steve (Steven Paul) Badanes is widely known for his practice and teaching of design/build. He is a founding member of the Jersey Devil design/build practice, and is currently a Professor in the University of Washington, Department of Architecture, where he holds the Howard S. Wright Endowed Chair of the University of Washington College of Architecture and Urban Planning.Badanes received his Bachelor of Arts from Wesleyan University in 1967, and his Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) from Princeton University in 1971. Seeking an alternative to conventional practice, Badanes and partners Jim Adamson and John Ringel founded the Jersey Devil design/build firm in 1972. The firm has designed and built a wide variety of projects over the ensuing three decades. The firm is comprised of skilled craftsmen, architects, inventors, and artists "committed to the interdependence of building and design." Jersey Devil architects/builders live on-site during construction of their designs, which are known for energy efficiency and innovative use of materials. Badanes has lectured on Jersey Devil's work at over 100 universities in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Europe. Their work has been the subject of two books, Jersey Devil Design/Build Book (1985) and Devil's Workshop: 25 Years of Jersey Devil Architecture (1997). Their work has also been featured in numerous articles in various professional and popular media.
Badanes has taught at various architecture and art schools since the 1980s. He has been on the Board of Directors of the Yestermorrow Design/Build School in Warren VT since 1983, and regularly teaches there in the summer. He first taught at the University of Washington in 1988. In 1996 he accepted an appointment as a permanent member of the UW faculty and is the first to hold the Howard S. Wright Endowed Chair. He typically teaches a design/build studio every year in the spring.
Badanes has conducted design/build workshops at the University of Technology in Helsinki, Finland, the University of Oregon, the University of Miami,Atlantic Center for the Arts, McGill University,UNCC, Ball State University, the University of California at San Diego, Florida A&M University, Miami University in Ohio, North Dakota State University,University of Michigan, and the University of Wisconsin. He is a frequent speaker at architecture schools across the United States and internationally.
The ACSA (Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture) has honored Badanes as an ACSA Distinguished Professor.

Friday, October 24, 2008

detercraft: Unit development

detercraft: Material Exploration

Purpose: Achieving joints and primary unit which could be developed further.

Material: Veneer ( No Nails or glue or thread or any other material)

We practiced some gymnastic in designing the primary unit or connections. ( Elizabeth sketched the potrait)

Wednesday, October 22, 2008


We are working on a cher ette "deterkraft" in digital fabrication studio.
The materila is thin veneer sheets without any other material glue, nail etc...just VENEER.....

1. Group kraft
2.Thin Veneer Kraft
3. Body Space
4. Luminious Transmission
5.200 USD except the Veneer
6.Free Stand
7. Ornamentation X Function
8. MS----> Design Intelligence
The material properties of veneer is very delicate due to its thickness we were given to work so the problem is how it reacts on tension and compression. we just looked a number of alternatives to achieve strong unit by joining, weaving, embracing, ingterlocking, twisitng, soaking, drying..... All sorts of gymnastics to get strong unit which could be used for further design of body space. Prof. Kevin and Steve ( Came from Los Angeles to guide the three day Cher ette) suggested more storng joints and its potential use on space or element design.
  • Strength in bending with grain
  • Excessive Redundancy
  • Perpendicular planes
  • Linear twist parallel to grains.

Saturday, October 4, 2008

Nepal: Hisotry in brief

Key Events:
1768 - Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah conquers Kathmandu and lays foundations for unified kingdom.
1792 - Nepalese expansion halted by defeat at hands of Chinese in Tibet.
1814-16 - Anglo-Nepalese War; culminates in treaty which establishes Nepal's current boundaries.
1846 - Nepal falls under sway of hereditary chief ministers known as Ranas, who dominate the monarchy and cut off country from outside world.

1923 - Treaty with Britain affirms Nepal's sovereignty.
Absolute monarchy
1950 - Anti-Rana forces based in India form alliance with monarch.
1951 - End of Rana rule. Sovereignty of crown restored and anti-Rana rebels in Nepalese Congress (NCP) Party form government.

1953 29 May - New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepal's Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
1955 - Nepal joins the United Nations.
1955 - King Tribhuwan dies, King Mahendra ascends throne.
1959 - Multi-party constitution adopted.
1960 - King Mahendra seizes control and suspends parliament, constitution and party politics after Nepali Congress Party (NCP) wins elections with B. P. Koirala as premier.
1962 - New constitution provides for non-party system of councils known as "panchayat" under which king exercises sole power. First elections to Rastrya Panchayat held in 1963.
1972 - King Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra.
King Mahendra's 1962 constitution cemented royal rule

1980 - Constitutional referendum follows agitation for reform. Small majority favours keeping existing panchayat system. King agrees to allow direct elections to national assembly - but on a non-party basis.
1985 - NCP begins civil disobedience campaign for restoration of multi-party system.
1986 - New elections boycotted by NCP.
1989 - Trade and transit dispute with India leads to border blockade by Delhi resulting in worsening economic situation.
1990 - Pro-democracy agitation co-ordinated by NCP and leftist groups. Street protests suppressed by security forces resulting in deaths and mass arrests. King Birendra eventually bows to pressure and agrees to new democratic constitution.

1991 - Nepali Congress Party wins first democratic elections. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister.
Political instability
1994 - Koirala's government defeated in no-confidence motion. New elections lead to formation of Communist government.
1995 - Communist government dissolved.
1995 - Radical leftist group, the Nepal Communist Party (Maoist), begins insurrection in rural areas aimed at abolishing monarch and establishing people's republic, sparking a conflict that would drag on for over a decade.

1997 - Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba (NCP) loses no-confidence vote, ushering in period of increased political instability, with frequent changes of prime minister.
2000 - GP Koirala (NCP) returns as prime minister, heading the ninth government in 10 years.
2001 1 June - King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other close relatives killed in shooting spree by drunken Crown Prince Dipendra, who then shoots himself.
2001 4 June - Prince Gyanendra crowned King of Nepal after Dipendra dies of his injuries.
2001 July - Maoist rebels step up campaign of violence. Prime Minister GP Koirala quits over the violence; succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba.
2001 November - Maoists end four-month old truce with government, declare peace talks with government failed. Launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts.

2001 November - State of emergency declared after more than 100 people are killed in four days of violence. King Gyanendra orders army to crush the Maoist rebels. Many hundreds are killed in rebel and government operations in the following months.
2002 May - Parliament dissolved, fresh elections called amid political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Sher Bahadur Deuba heads interim government, renews emergency.

2002 October - King Gyanendra dismisses Deuba and indefinitely puts off elections set for November. Lokendra Bahadur Chand appointed as PM.
2003 January - Rebels, government declare ceasefire.
2003 May-June - Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigns as PM; king appoints his own nominee Surya Bahadur Thapa as new premier.
End of truce
2003 August - Rebels pull out of peace talks with government and end seven-month truce. The following months see resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and police.
2004 April - Nepal joins the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

2004 May - Royalist Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa resigns following weeks of street protests by opposition groups.
2004 June - King Gyanendra reappoints Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister with the task of holding elections.
Direct power
2005 1 February - King Gyanendra dismisses Prime Minister Deuba and his government, declares a state of emergency and assumes direct power, citing the need to defeat Maoist rebels.

2005 30 April - King lifts the state of emergency amid international pressure.
2005 November - Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on a programme intended to restore democracy.
2006 April - King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. GP Koirala is appointed as prime minister. Maoist rebels call a three-month ceasefire.
2006 May - Parliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's political powers. The government and Maoist rebels begin peace talks, the first in nearly three years.

2006 16 June - Rebel leader Prachanda and PM Koirala hold talks - the first such meeting between the two sides - and agree that the Maoists should be brought into an interim government.
2006 November - The government and Maoists sign a peace accord, declaring a formal end to a 10-year rebel insurgency. The rebels are to join a transitional government and their weapons will be placed under UN supervision.
2007 January - Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution. Violent ethnic protests erupt in the south-east; demonstrators demand autonomy for the region.
Maoists join government

2007 April - Former Maoist rebels join interim government, a move that takes them into the political mainstream.
2007 May - Elections for a constituent assembly pushed back to November.
A US offer to resettle thousands of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal has raised hopes but has also sparked tension in the camps, says Human Rights Watch.
2007 September - Three bombs hit Kathmandu in the first attack in the capital since the end of the Maoist insurgency.
Maoists quit interim government to press demand for monarchy to be scrapped. This forces the postponement of November's constituent assembly elections.
2007 October - UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urges Nepal's parties to sink their differences to save the peace process.

2007 December - Parliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of peace deal with Maoists, who agree to re-join government.
2008 January - A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens in the southern Terai plains. Groups there have been demanding regional autonomy.
2008 April - Former Maoist rebels win the largest bloc of seats in elections to the new constituent assembly, but fail to achieve an outright majority.

2008 May - Nepal becomes a republic.
2008 June - Maoist ministers resign from the cabinet in a row over who should be the next head of state.
2008 July - Two months after the departure of King Gyanendra, Ram Baran Yadav becomes Nepal's first president.
2008 August 18 Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal ( Prachanda) becomes Priminister.

Friday, September 19, 2008

Proposal/Arch 652

I wrote a proposal for the " Architectural Research Methods" for my grduate study here in BSU.
the pre-writing goes like this;
Proposal/ Arch 652
Fall Semester /2008

“Unknown cities within the city…. The foundation of self respect in their society is not having cash but a place to live.”
-Professor Richard Sennet

“The house was not so hard to make because I kept the structure minimum…..It sometimes gets cold but I like the view of the river.”
-Okawara, A homeless in Tokyo

“These homes (of homeless) embody simplicity and functionality at one with their environment, like the Japanese Tea house of Sen Rikyu.”
-Architect Kyohei Sakaguchi

Architecture has taken a great leap since the beginning of the human civilization. The materiality, techniques, forms; functionality has profoundly changed since early shelter of nomadic tribes to modern intelligent buildings. Architects and designers throughout the world have put most of their energy in creating aesthetically beautiful, structurally sound and functionally user-friendly built environment. In such an encouraging scenario, when I observe the world around one questions comes up in my mind, what about the architecture of the homeless people.

Small enclosure of materials like flattened cardboards, corrugated metal roofs, sheets of plastic, leftover materials in Dr. Wes Janz’s word ensure them same security and sense of privacy that our house provides us. Intricate network of metal pipes, geometrical roofs, and even use of solar panel reflects their interest in design fulfilling function. Though they are not architect, their construction approach to support their need of shelter always draws my attention.

Thus, I propose to study a tragic arena of architecture, existing architecture of homeless people. The materials used, forms, structures along with the surrounding environment in different part of the world. I want to discover their inherent feelings about their home.

To achieve this, I will carry out literature study on the construction of homeless people using available books, internets and magazines. I will collect talks, views and case studies (if possible) of the related groups or individuals to discover their world of architecture and social aspects. Based on such study a set of photographs, structure and material study will be compiled in a report form.

Sunday, August 31, 2008

BSU student wins award

"Sustainability has been an important aspect of my studies since I came to Ball State to study architecture. I believe we should all do our part to create a more sustainable world, and it was an honor to win the contest and share these views on a national stage."
--Jagjeet Singh Chahal

Link for the Video

My new friend at Ball State University Jagjeet has earned 1000 USD scholarship and Ball State University received an electric car as a gift fromMiles electric Vehicles. ( Unfortunately, the award is not vice versa. Isn't it, jagjeet? ha... ha...).He had participated and won in Miles Revolution Video contest jointly sponsored by Miles electric vehicles and No Gas Required.

The electric car is the most expected solution for sustainability of natural resources. Jagjeet took a first ride of car before it was handed over to the BSU in University's earth day celebration. " I honked the horn as I drove it, Just to show everyone that the car can make some noise", the university website quotes Jagjeet.


I read this 108 year old quote in an information board.

"Everything that can be invented has been invented."
-Charles H. Duell
(Director of US patent ofiice, 1899)

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Food for thought

A paragraph from the class note of Dr. Wes;

"The beach was, and still is , a great teacher. This is where many of my working rhythms were first established. Work between the tides usually has to be made quickly and lasts for only a short time.Timing is critical. There is a gamble and balance between what I want to make and the time available to achieve it. rarely is there enough time to finish a work just as I want.This lesson reaches beyond work made on the beach. i have tried to pitch my life so that I make the best use of my time and energy. Perfection in every work is not the aim. I prefer works that are fashioned by the compromises forced upon me by nature, whether it be an incoming tide, the end of a day, thawing snow, shrivelling leaves or the deadline of my own lifetime."

-Andy Goldsworthy,"Time,Change,Place" in Time (New York: Harry Abrams, 2000)

Sunday, August 24, 2008

Hello! Ball State University

in the last three month, almost half of the world is travelled.Travel from Osaka to Kathmandu (Nepal) to again Osaka to Tokyo to Seattle to Dulles to Indianapolis (USA) finally landed me to my destination Ball State University; Muncie; a mid-sized midwestern city in Indiana. Here I am going to pursue master degree in architecture and first semester (fall) starts this monday.I found here three wonderful Nepalese friends (Keshavraj Paudel, Bikram Sharma and Kamal Prajapati). All of them are quite friendly and I am enjyoing the hang-outs right before the fall academic session.BBQ,Shopping,Tennis,Basketball,Gym all helping to overcome some sort of homesickness in this new environment. Thank you very much guys!
I am missing my wife Ava, daughter Samsara and family in Nepal a lot. On the way to USA, We had stopped at Tokyo for a couple of days. We visited Disney resort, Tokyo tower and some other places of architectural importance. And to my surprise, my four year old daughter still thinks I am in Disney land because they returned back to Matsuyama and I took flight to USA from Tolyo. Isn't it funny ha .. ha.. ha...
By the way, I am having a kind of excitement to be part of one of the best architectural school in the US and gain knowledge under the guidance of Dr. Wesley Janz. The CAP ( college of architecture and planning) itself is located in the award winning building. isn't it exciting enough!
Take a look on CAPbuilding. Here is the link,there is the slide show on the right side of the linked page.

Thursday, August 14, 2008

Beijing 2008:Olypicizing Architecture(Part-3)

Competition for the Bird's Nest:

Thirteen Finalists of the architecture design competition of the national stadium
( 2008 olympic main stadium) are listed on the official site of the Beijing
Municipal Commission of the Urban Planning.

The link is:

Tuesday, August 12, 2008

Takamatsu, Japan

I just travelled Takamatsu on my way to Nepal.
Some pictures ......

Sunday, August 10, 2008

Beijing 2008:Olympicizing Architecture (Part -2)

Bird's Nest :
Location:Beijing, China
Broke ground:December 2003
Government of the People's Republic of China
Construction cost:4
billion yuan (~USD $500 million)
Herzog & de Meuron,ArupSport,Ai WeiweiCAG
Capacity:Olympic Capacity: 91,000 & Post Olympic Capacity: 80,000

"The stadium’s appearance is pure structure. Facade and structure are identical. The structural elements mutually support each other and converge into a grid-like formation – almost like a bird's nest with its interwoven twigs. The spatial effect of the stadium is novel and radical and yet simple and of an almost archaic immediacy, thus creating a unique historical landmark for the Olympics 2008.
The stadium is conceived as a large collective vessel, which makes a distinctive and unmistakable impression both when it is seen from a distance and from close up. It meets all the functional and technical requirements of an Olympic National Stadium, but without communicating the insistent sameness of technocratic architecture dominated by large spans and digital screens. The spatial effect of the stadium is novel and radical and yet simple and of an almost archaic immediacy. Its appearance is pure structure. Facade and structure are identical. The structural elements mutually support each other and converge into a grid-like formation, in which fa?ades, stairs and roof are integrated. Visitors walk through this formation and enter the spacious ambulatory that runs full circle around the stands. From there one can survey the circulation of the entire area including the stairs that access the three tiers of the stands. Functioning like an arcade or a concourse, the lobby is a covered urban space with restaurants and stores that invite visitors to stroll around.
Just as birds stuff the spaces between the woven twigs of their nests with a soft filler, the spaces in the structure of the stadium will be filled with inflated ETFE cushions. On the roof, the cushions will be mounted on the outside of the structure to make the roof completely weatherproof. Whilst the rain is collected for rainwater recuperation the sunlight filters through the translucent roof providing the lawn with essential UV-Radiation. On the facade, the inflated cushions will be mounted on the inside of the structure where necessary, e.g. to provide wind protection. Since all of the facilities – restaurants, suites, shops and restrooms – are all self-contained units, it is possible to do largely without a solid, enclosed facade. This allows natural ventilation of the stadium, which is the most important aspect of the stadium sustainable design.
The sliding roof is an integral part of the structure of the stadium. When it is closed, it converts the stadium into a covered arena. Just as a tin is only complete with a lid, the roof, whether closed or open, is an elementary part of the whole. With its own structural logic, it is also a grid-like formation that forms a waterproof shell together with the inflated cushions."

Wednesday, August 6, 2008

Traditional Newar Houses of Nepal

"The Newar people are indebted to their country for their individualistic, once prominent and flourishing culture; related to that, they have a highly developed traditional architecture which is of national significance..."
- Giovanni Scheibler

Typology of Newar House:
Forms and Planning:
The Newar houses are built around a small square or rectangular courtyard or a quadrangle forming the groups, one house adjoining the other , or sharing common wall in between with at least one house providing access to the street through a low height gateway on the ground floor. although courtyard planning is the basic component in the Newar architecture, in the minority of cases, houses are even built on either side of the street.The multifunctional courtyard was/is the centre of the house. Here, the family spend much of its time. Children could play while the woman carried out their household chores. It not only served as a vital environmental element but also place for social interaction.
Most often used construction method in traditional Newar building is load - bearing brickwork construction, with floor joists spanning between the front and back walls and the central spine wall. The foundations generally consists of a few layers of natural stone or compacted brick, this is followed by brickwork which generally attains the wall thickness of the ground floor and which continues into the superstructure without any damp proof layer.Despite the poor quality of the soil in most part of the valley, the foundations of one to four- storey buildings are not much deeper than 60-80 centimeters and wider than 70 centimeters.The cornice, supporting the lower end of the slanting roof struts is formed by different carved timbers and two or three layers of projecting moulded bricks ( Karnes Appas), which overlap at the corners of the buildings to become an important decorative building element. The brick joints are kept to a minimum thickness so that the clay mortar can not be easily washed away by rain. This is very apparent in the brick facing, where the bricks are wedge shaped and , therefore, brick edge adjoins brick edge on the outer or visible face and the mortar is mostly hidden within. The fine lines between the edges of these bricks were often sealed with a mixture of ( Oil ( tel), resin ( Saldup) and red earth ( Sindur).

Construction Materials:

  • WOOD mainly used as columns ,beams,rafters and for construction of doors, windows, stairs. ( Shorea Robusta, Pinus roxburghii, Schima Wallichii, Quercus glauca and Michelia Champaca ,all Latin names, species of local trees were used.
  • METALS copper, iron, brass, bronze were commonly used. Extremely expensive building material, it was used on religious and door facings, lattice- works, door latches.
  • NATURAL STONE sedimentary rocks or metamorphic stone gathered from the quarries situated on the north and south sides of mountain slopes.
  • BRICKS AND TILES mud bricks were used for construction of walls. Mud was/is easily available as a local building material. clay tiles were extensively used for roof coverings and for courtyard paving, terrace floors and floor coverings ( Ceramic tiles
  • MORTAR Grey clay was used as jointing material. Special mastic along with grey clay was used for religious buildings, palaces and other important buildings, always together with conical bricks. Lime-Surkhi, Lime stone was also used.
The roof is double- pitched with the ridge on the line of the central spine wall, and a projecting overhang of about 850 mm at front and back. The structure is of timber and comprises columns on the central line supporting a ridge beam, intermediate purlins supported on primary rafters, a wall plate , an outer beam supported on angled struts, and then the rafters pegged together over the ridge beam and projecting out over the walls to the outer beam. Onto the rafters are laid timber or split bamboo laths, then a thick ( 150mm ) layers of sterile mud finished with small fired clay roof tiles ( jhingati) embedded on it.

Roof is the most striking architectural feature in traditional Newar buildings.
    • Huge projecting roofs ( Pau in Newar language). Hovering roof form with bracket support overhanging precariously on building walls with bracket support.
    • Set one over the other in Pagoda form one over the other.
    • Protect brick walls in mud mortar from weather: Rain and Sun.
    • Overhang: Dwelling- 1000mm, Vihara-1500mm, Temples- Up to 4000 mm.
Roof- Construction:
Design and detail of roof construction same in all buildings.
  • Pitched Roof:
  • Purlin Construction
  • With rafters (musins) of the topmost roof of temple meeting at a point on central post ( than)
  • Ridge piece ( dhuri) rests on lower sleeper walls that are an extension of the lower wall structure.
  • Roof plate (nas) rests on either on an eave structure or slanting struts ( Tundals)
  • Wooden nails ( chukus) keep the various components in place.
  • Rafters 8musins) and floor beams ( dhalins) are spaced at intervals of 100-150mm depending on beam section
  • Roofs are covered with special clay tiles (jhingati)
  • Horizontal wooden planks placed over rafters - above which is laid clay is spread in 40-100 mm thick layer - into which jhingati, with overlap of 2/3rd , is pressed.
  • Kopus or Gogochas are special tiles used for ridges.
  • Dokuns are special tiles used for valleys.
  • Bhauwas are special tiles to provide light and ventilation.
  • Corners and junctions of eaves is emphasized by corner tile ( Kunpa) usually designed as a bird.
  • Tiles are uniform in shape but often different in size.

Construction Techniques:
Unlike the Indus valley civilization, the construction technique of the traditional Newar house is same as that of the early Greek's and Egypt's - the trabeated system.Wooden posts, beams and struts used in the houses are clear intermingling of the structure and ornamentation. Usually a dressed natural Stone called lohan or a wooden threshold ( lakanshin) supports the wooden post (than) and wooden bracket ( meth) which supports the load from the lintel (nina) and beams ( dalin) on the post.
A long peg called sa , extending from the post, passes through the bracket into the beam and holds the three structural elements in position. The upper half of the post and the brackets are intricately carved, whereas the beams and base plates are generally without decoration.
Super craftsmanship is lavished on the pillars, lateral pilasters, lintels and beams or on the brackets which support the projecting eaves of the roofs.
Lintels over openings are of timber and often in three parts, stepping upwards towards the inside.
Aspects common to Traditional Newar Architecture:

  • Low and Close: Human Scales- Inside and Out ( Low doors, Ceiling Heights)
  • Local Building Materials
  • close Interaction Between inside and outdoor spaces.
  • Symmetric/ Central Entrance
  • Informal but structural planning.
  1. The traditional architecture of the Kathmandu valley,Wolfgang Korn, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu, Nepal 1998.
  2. Building today in a Historical context Bhaktapur Nepal,Giovanni Sceibler, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Nepal 1982
  3. Nepalese Architecture, N. R. Banarjee, Agam Kala Prakashan , Delhi 1980
  4. Kirtipur: An urban community in Nepal its people, town planning, architecture and crafts, Editors: Mehrdad Shokoohy and Natalie H. Shokoohy.
  5. Lecture Notes during Archiview 1998, Prof. Donn Treese.

Monday, August 4, 2008

Ehime World Trade Centre ( Item Ehime)

An Exhibition cum convention centre located at Ehime Prefecture of Japan.

This round form houses
entry foyer, Reception area and vertical circulation ( Elevator) area.

Multi Purpose Hall (About 4500 Square meter area) can be partitioned to desired area.

Friday, July 4, 2008

Japanese mall: emifull, masaki

Here is some pictures of recently opened mall ( emifull, masaki) in Matsuyama, Japan.